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Kugwiritsa ntchito

Magnetic Devices 1

Maginito Zipangizo

Mfundo Yoyendetsera Ntchito:

Mfundo yogwiritsira ntchito Magnetic Devices kusamutsa torque kuchokera kumapeto kwa injini kupita kumapeto kudzera pamphepo ya mpweya. Ndipo palibe kugwirizana pakati pa mbali yopatsira ndi katundu wa zipangizo. Mphamvu yamphamvu yamphamvu yamphamvu yapadziko lapansi yapadziko lapansi mbali imodzi yotumizira komanso mafunde opangidwa kuchokera kokondakita wa mbali inayo amalumikizana kuti apange torque. Mwa kusintha kusiyana kwa kusiyana kwa mpweya, mphamvu ya torsion ikhoza kuyendetsedwa bwino ndi kuti liwiro lizitha kuwongoleredwa.

Ubwino Wazinthu:

Maginito okhazikika amalowa m'malo mwa kugwirizana pakati pa galimoto ndi katundu ndi kusiyana kwa mpweya. Kusiyana kwa mpweya kumachotsa kugwedezeka koyipa, kumachepetsa kuvala, kumawonjezera mphamvu zamagetsi, kumawonjezera moyo wamagalimoto, ndikuteteza zida kuti zisawonongeke mochulukira. Chotsatira:

Sungani mphamvu

Kudalirika kokwezeka

Chepetsani ndalama zolipirira

Kuwongolera njira zowongolera

Palibe kusokonekera kwa harmonic kapena zovuta zamtundu wa mphamvu

Wokhoza kugwira ntchito m'malo ovuta 

The Motor

Samarium cobalt alloy wakhala akugwiritsidwa ntchito kwa osowa padziko lapansi okhazikika maginito motors kuyambira 1980s. Mitundu yazogulitsa imaphatikizapo: mota ya Servo, mota yoyendetsa, choyambira chagalimoto, mota yankhondo yapansi, mota yandege ndi zina zotero ndipo gawo lazogulitsa limatumizidwa kunja. Makhalidwe akulu a samarium cobalt okhazikika maginito aloyi ndi:

(1). Mapiritsi a demagnetization kwenikweni ndi mzere wowongoka, otsetsereka ali pafupi ndi permeability yopingasa. Ndiko kuti, mzere wochira umakhala wofanana ndi curve ya demagnetization.

(2). Ili ndi Hcj yayikulu, imakhala ndi kukana kwamphamvu kwa demagnetization.

(3). Ili ndi mphamvu ya maginito yapamwamba (BH) yokwera kwambiri.

(4). Kutentha kosinthika kosinthika ndikocheperako komanso kukhazikika kwa kutentha kwa maginito ndikwabwino.

Chifukwa cha zomwe tafotokozazi, aloyi osowa padziko lapansi samarium cobalt maginito okhazikika ndiwoyenera kugwiritsa ntchito mawonekedwe otseguka, kupanikizika, mawonekedwe a demagnetizing kapena mawonekedwe amphamvu, oyenera kupanga zigawo zazing'ono.

The motor

Njinga imatha kugawidwa kukhala mota ya DC ndi AC mota kutengera mtundu wamagetsi.

(1). Malinga ndi kapangidwe kake ndi mfundo yogwirira ntchito, mota ya DC ingagawidwe kukhala:

Brushless DC motor ndi brush DC motor.

Brush DC motor imatha kugawidwa kukhala: maginito okhazikika a DC motor ndi electromagnetic DC motor. 

Electromagnetic DC motor imatha kugawidwa kukhala: mota wa DC, shunt DC motor, mota ina ya DC ndi mota ya DC.

Wokhazikika maginito DC galimoto akhoza kugawidwa mu: osowa lapansi okhazikika maginito DC galimoto, ferrite okhazikika maginito DC galimoto ndi Alnico okhazikika maginito DC galimoto.

(2). Magalimoto a AC amathanso kugawidwa kukhala: mota yagawo limodzi ndi mota yamagawo atatu.

Electroacoustic1

Electroacoustic

Mfundo Yoyendetsera Ntchito:

Ndiko kupanga mphamvu yapano kudzera pa koyilo kuti ipange mphamvu ya maginito, kugwiritsa ntchito chisangalalo kuchokera ku mphamvu ya maginito ndi chokulirapo choyambirira maginito kuchitapo kanthu kuti ipangitse kugwedezeka. Ndilo zokuzira mawu zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri.

Ikhoza kugawidwa m'magulu akuluakulu awa:

Dongosolo lamagetsi: kuphatikiza koyilo ya mawu (komanso koyilo yamagetsi), koyiloyo nthawi zambiri imakhazikika ndi makina onjenjemera, kudzera pa diaphragm kuti asinthe kugwedezeka kwa koyilo kukhala ma siginecha amawu.

Dongosolo logwedezeka: kuphatikiza kanema wamawu, ndiye kuti, diaphragm ya nyanga, diaphragm. Diaphragm imatha kupangidwa ndi zinthu zosiyanasiyana. Tinganene kuti kumveka kwa zokuzira mawu kumatsimikiziridwa makamaka ndi zida ndi njira yopangira diaphragm.

Malinga ndi njira zosiyanasiyana zoyika maginito ake, zitha kugawidwa m'magulu awiri:

Maginito akunja: kulunga maginito mozungulira mawu, motero pangitsa kuti mawuwo azizungulira kwambiri kuposa maginito. Kukula kwa koyilo ya mawu akunja kumachulukitsidwa, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti malo olumikizirana a diaphragm akhale okulirapo, ndipo mphamvuyo ndiyabwinoko. Kukula kokulira kwa koyilo ya mawu kumakhalanso ndi mphamvu yowotcha kwambiri.

Imagnet maginito: koyilo ya mawu imapangidwa mkati mwa maginito, kotero kukula kwa koyilo ya mawu kumakhala kocheperako.

Zida zokutira

Mfundo yaikulu ya magnetron sputtering ❖ kuyanika zida ndi kuti ma elekitironi kugundana maatomu argon m`kati imathandizira kuti gawo lapansi pansi zochita za magetsi, ndiye ionize ambiri argon ayoni ndi ma elekitironi, ndi ma elekitironi kuwulukira gawo lapansi. Pansi pa mphamvu yamagetsi, argon ion imathandizira kuphulitsa chandamale, ndikutulutsa maatomu ambiri omwe akuwatsata, monga ma atomu osalowerera (kapena mamolekyu) omwe amayikidwa pagawo lapansi kuti apange mafilimu. Elekitironi yachiwiri ikukwera mofulumira kupita ku gawo lapansi lomwe limakhudzidwa ndi mphamvu ya Magnetic field lorenzo, imamangidwa mkati mwa chigawo cha plasma pafupi ndi chandamale, kachulukidwe ka plasma m'dera lino ndipamwamba kwambiri, ma elekitironi achiwiri pansi pa mphamvu ya maginito kuzungulira. chandamale pamwamba ngati zoyenda zozungulira, ndi elekitironi kuyenda njira yaitali kwambiri, nthawi zonse argon atomu kugunda ionization kunja kochuluka argon ayoni m`kati kusuntha kwa bombardment chandamale. Pambuyo pa kugundana kangapo, mphamvu ya ma elekitironi imachepa pang'onopang'ono, ndipo amachotsa mizere ya maginito, kutali ndi chandamale, ndipo pamapeto pake amaika pa gawo lapansi. 

Coating Equipment-

Magnetron sputtering ndi kugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu ya maginito kumanga ndi kukulitsa njira yoyenda ya ma elekitironi, kusintha koyenda kwa ma elekitironi, kuwongolera kuchuluka kwa ma ionization a gasi wogwira ntchito komanso kugwiritsa ntchito bwino mphamvu zama elekitironi. Kulumikizana kwa maginito ndi gawo lamagetsi (EXB drift) kumapangitsa kuti ma elekitironi awonekere mozungulira mozungulira katatu m'malo mongozungulira mozungulira pamalo omwe mukufuna. Ponena za chandamale pamwamba circumferential sputtering mbiri, ndi maginito mizere chandamale gwero maginito ndi circumferential mawonekedwe. Njira yogawa imakhudza kwambiri mapangidwe a filimu.

Magnetron sputtering amadziwika ndi kuchuluka kwa kupanga filimu, kutentha kwapansi panthaka, kumamatira bwino kwa filimu, ndi zokutira zazikulu. Ukadaulo ukhoza kugawidwa mu DC magnetron sputtering ndi RF magnetron sputtering.

wind turbines in the Oiz eolic park

Kupanga Mphamvu kwa Mphepo

Wokhazikika maginito mphepo jenereta utenga mkulu ntchito sintered NdFeb maginito okhazikika, mkulu mokwanira Hcj angapewe maginito wotaya maginito pa kutentha. Moyo wa maginito zimadalira gawo lapansi zakuthupi ndi pamwamba odana ndi dzimbiri mankhwala. The odana ndi dzimbiri maginito NdFeb ayenera kuyambira kupanga.

A lalikulu okhazikika maginito mphepo jenereta zambiri amagwiritsa ntchito zikwi NdFeb maginito, aliyense mtengo wa rotor amapanga ambiri maginito. Kugwirizana kwa rotor maginito pole kumafuna kugwirizana kwa maginito, kuphatikizapo kusasinthasintha kwa kulekerera kwapakati ndi maginito katundu. Kufanana kwa maginito maginito kumaphatikizapo kusiyana kwa maginito pakati pa anthu ndi kakang'ono ndipo mphamvu ya maginito ya maginito iyenera kukhala yofanana.

Kuti muzindikire kufanana kwa maginito a maginito amodzi, ndikofunikira kudula maginito mzidutswa ting'onoting'ono zingapo ndikuyesa kupindika kwake. Yesani ngati mawonekedwe a maginito a batch ndi ofanana popanga. Ndikofunikira kutulutsa maginito kuchokera kumadera osiyanasiyana mu ng'anjo ya sintering monga zitsanzo ndikuyezera mayendedwe a demagnetization awo. Chifukwa zida zoyezera ndizokwera mtengo kwambiri, ndizosatheka kutsimikizira kukhulupirika kwa maginito aliwonse omwe akuyezedwa. Choncho, n'zosatheka kuchita zonse kuyendera mankhwala. Kusasinthasintha kwa katundu wa maginito wa NdFeb kuyenera kutsimikiziridwa ndi zida zopangira ndi kuwongolera njira.

Industrial Automation

Zochita zokha zimatanthawuza njira yomwe zida zamakina, makina kapena njira zimakwaniritsira cholinga chomwe chimayembekezeredwa kudzera pakuzindikira zokha, kukonza zidziwitso, kusanthula, kuweruza ndikusintha molingana ndi zomwe anthu amafuna popanda kutengapo gawo mwachindunji kwa anthu kapena anthu ochepa. Ukadaulo wamagetsi umagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri m'makampani, ulimi, usilikali, kafukufuku wasayansi, zoyendera, bizinesi, zamankhwala, ntchito ndi mabanja. Kugwiritsa ntchito ukadaulo wamagetsi sikumangomasula anthu ku ntchito zolemetsa, gawo la ntchito zamaganizidwe komanso malo ogwirira ntchito owopsa, komanso kukulitsa magwiridwe antchito a ziwalo zamunthu, kupititsa patsogolo kwambiri zokolola zantchito, kukulitsa luso la kumvetsetsa kwaumunthu ndikusintha kwachilengedwe. dziko. Chifukwa chake, zodziwikiratu ndizofunikira komanso chizindikiro chofunikira chamakono amakampani, ulimi, chitetezo cha dziko ndi sayansi ndiukadaulo. Monga gawo lamagetsi opangira mphamvu, maginito ali ndi mawonekedwe ofunikira kwambiri:

1. Palibe moto, makamaka yoyenera malo ophulika;

2. Zabwino zopulumutsa mphamvu;

3. Kuyamba kofewa ndi kuyimitsa kofewa, kuchita bwino kwa braking

4. Voliyumu yaying'ono, kukonza kwakukulu.

drinks production plant in China
Aerospace-Field

Aerospace Field

Osowa lapansi kuponyedwa magnesium aloyi zimagwiritsa ntchito kwa nthawi yaitali 200 ~ 300 ℃, amene ali wabwino kutentha mphamvu ndi yaitali kukwawa kukana. Kusungunuka kwa zinthu zosawerengeka zapadziko lapansi mu magnesiamu ndi kosiyana, ndipo kuwonjezereka kwake ndi lanthanum, nthaka yosakanikirana, cerium, praseodymium ndi neodymium. Chikoka chake chabwino kumawonjezeranso pa makina katundu kutentha firiji ndi kutentha kwambiri. Pambuyo pochiza kutentha, aloyi ya ZM6 yokhala ndi neodymium monga chinthu chachikulu chowonjezera chopangidwa ndi AVIC sichingokhala ndi makina apamwamba pa kutentha kwa firiji, komanso imakhala ndi makina abwino osakhalitsa komanso kukana kwamadzi pa kutentha kwakukulu. Itha kugwiritsidwa ntchito kutentha kutentha ndipo ingagwiritsidwe ntchito kwa nthawi yayitali pa 250 ℃. Ndi mawonekedwe amtundu watsopano wa magnesium alloy wokhala ndi yttrium corrosion resistance, alloy magnesium alloy atchukanso m'makampani oyendetsa ndege akunja m'zaka zaposachedwa.

Pambuyo powonjezera kuchuluka koyenera kwazitsulo zosowa padziko lapansi ku ma aloyi a magnesium. Kuphatikizika kwa chitsulo chosowa padziko lapansi ku magnesium aloyi kumatha kukulitsa kutulutsa kwa aloyi, kuchepetsa microporosity, kuwongolera kulimba kwa mpweya ndikuwongolera modabwitsa zomwe zimachitika pakusweka kotentha ndi porosity, kotero kuti aloyi akadali ndi mphamvu yayikulu komanso kukana kukwawa pa 200- 300 ℃.

Zinthu zosowa zapadziko lapansi zimagwira ntchito yofunika kwambiri pakuwongolera magwiridwe antchito a superalloy. Ma superalloys amagwiritsidwa ntchito m'malo otentha a ma aeroengines. Komabe, kupititsa patsogolo kwa injini ya aero-injini kumakhala kochepa chifukwa cha kuchepa kwa kukana kwa okosijeni, kukana kwa dzimbiri komanso mphamvu pa kutentha kwakukulu.

Zida Zapakhomo

Domestic Appliance imatanthawuza mitundu yonse ya zida zamagetsi ndi zamagetsi zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito m'nyumba ndi malo ofanana. Amadziwanso ngati zida zapagulu, zida zapakhomo. Domestic Appliance imamasula anthu ku ntchito zapakhomo zolemetsa, zazing'ono komanso zowononga nthawi, zimapanga chitonthozo komanso chokongola, chothandizira thanzi lakuthupi ndi m'maganizo la anthu okhalamo komanso ogwirira ntchito, komanso kupereka zosangalatsa komanso zosangalatsa. kufunikira kwa moyo wabanja wamakono.

Zida zapakhomo zili ndi mbiri yakale, United States imatengedwa kuti ndi kumene zida zapakhomo zinabadwira. Kukula kwa zida zapanyumba kumasiyanasiyana kumayiko osiyanasiyana, ndipo dziko lapansi silinapangebe gulu logwirizana la zida zapakhomo. M’mayiko ena, zipangizo zounikira zimalembedwa m’gulu la zida za m’nyumba, ndipo zida zomvetsera ndi mavidiyo zimatchulidwa kuti ndi zida za chikhalidwe ndi zosangalatsa, zomwe zimaphatikizidwanso ndi zoseweretsa zamagetsi.

Zomwe zimachitika tsiku ndi tsiku: Khomo lakutsogolo limayamwa, injini mkati mwa loko ya khomo lamagetsi, masensa, ma TV, zitseko zamaginito pazitseko za firiji, ma frequency frequency compressor motor, air conditioner compressor motor, fan motor, hard drive zapakompyuta, olankhula, choyankhulira m'makutu, makina opangira ma hood osiyanasiyana, mota yamakina ochapira ndi zina zotero adzagwiritsa ntchito maginito.

Domestic-Appliance
Many auto parts (done in 3d)

Makampani Agalimoto

Kutengera momwe amagwirira ntchito m'mafakitale, 80% ya mchere wosowa padziko lapansi umapangidwa kukhala zida za maginito okhazikika kudzera mumigodi ndi kusungunula ndi kukonzanso. Zida zokhazikika za maginito zimagwiritsidwa ntchito makamaka m'mafakitale atsopano amagetsi monga mota yamagetsi atsopano ndi jenereta yamphepo. Choncho, osowa dziko monga yofunika mphamvu zitsulo zitsulo wakopa chidwi kwambiri. 

Akuti galimoto ambiri ali oposa 30 mbali ntchito osowa dziko maginito okhazikika, ndi galimoto mkulu-mapeto ndi oposa 70 mbali ayenera kugwiritsa ntchito osowa dziko okhazikika maginito zakuthupi, kumaliza zosiyanasiyana zochita kulamulira.

"Galimoto yapamwamba imafunikira pafupifupi 0.5kg-3.5kg yazinthu zosowa padziko lapansi zokhazikika maginito, ndipo ndalamazi ndizokulirapo kuposa magalimoto atsopano amagetsi. Wosakanizidwa uliwonse amadya 5kg NdFeb kuposa galimoto wamba. Osowa dziko lapansi okhazikika maginito injini m'malo galimoto chikhalidwe kuti gwiritsani ntchito kuposa 5-10kg NdFeb mu magalimoto oyera amagetsi.

Pankhani ya kuchuluka kwa malonda mu 2020, magalimoto amagetsi opanda pake amakhala 81.57%, ndipo ena onse amakhala magalimoto osakanizidwa. Malinga ndi chiŵerengero chimenechi, magalimoto amphamvu atsopano okwana 10,000 adzafunika pafupifupi matani 47 a zinthu zosapezeka padziko lapansi, pafupifupi matani 25 kuposa magalimoto amafuta.

Gawo Latsopano la Mphamvu

Tonse tili ndi chidziwitso chofunikira cha magalimoto amagetsi atsopano. Mabatire, ma mota ndi kuwongolera zamagetsi ndizofunikira kwambiri pagalimoto yatsopano yamagetsi. Galimoto imagwira ntchito yofanana ndi injini yamagalimoto amtundu wamtundu, womwe ndi wofanana ndi mtima wagalimoto, pomwe batire yamagetsi imakhala yofanana ndi mafuta ndi magazi agalimoto, komanso gawo lofunikira kwambiri pakupanga magalimoto. mota ndi osowa dziko lapansi. Zida zazikulu zopangira zida zamakono zamakono zamakono zamakono ndi Neodymium, Samarium, Praseodymium, Dysprosium ndi zina zotero. NdFeb ali 4-10 nthawi apamwamba maginito kuposa wamba okhazikika maginito zipangizo, ndipo amadziwika kuti "mfumu ya maginito okhazikika".

Dziko lapansi losowa limapezekanso m'zigawo monga mabatire amphamvu. Mabatire apano a ternary lifiyamu, dzina lake lonse ndi " Ternary Material Battery ", nthawi zambiri amatanthauza kugwiritsa ntchito faifi tambala cobalt manganese acid lithiamu (Li (NiCoMn) O2, kutsetsereka) lifiyamu faifi tambala kapena cobalt aluminate (NCA) ternary positive elekitirodi chuma lithiamu batire. . Pangani Mchere wa Nickel, Mchere wa Cobalt, Mchere wa Manganese monga magawo atatu osiyana a zosakaniza zosintha zosiyanasiyana, choncho amatchedwa "Ternary".

Ponena za kuwonjezera zinthu zina zapadziko lapansi zosowa ku electrode yabwino ya ternary lithiamu batire, zotsatira zoyambira zikuwonetsa kuti, chifukwa cha zinthu zazikulu zapadziko lapansi, zinthu zina zimatha kupanga batire ndikutulutsa mwachangu, moyo wautali wautumiki, batire yokhazikika. ntchito, etc., zikhoza kuwonedwa kuti osowa dziko lithiamu batire akuyembekezeka kukhala mphamvu yaikulu ya m'badwo watsopano wa batire mphamvu. Choncho dziko losowa kwambiri ndi chida chamatsenga cha zida zazikulu zamagalimoto.

Green energy concept with grass growing in shape of car inside transparent piggy bank
MRI - Magnetic resonance imaging scan device in Hospital. Medical Equipment and Health Care.

Zida Zachipatala ndi Zida

Pankhani ya zida zamankhwala, mpeni wa laser wopangidwa ndi zinthu za laser wokhala ndi dziko lapansi losowa ukhoza kugwiritsidwa ntchito pochita opaleshoni yabwino, ulusi wa kuwala wopangidwa ndi galasi la lanthanum ukhoza kugwiritsidwa ntchito ngati njira yowunikira, yomwe imatha kuwona bwino zilonda zam'mimba zamunthu. Chinthu chosowa cha Earth ytterbium chingagwiritsidwe ntchito kusanthula ubongo ndi kujambula m'chipinda. X-ray intensifying chophimba anapanga mtundu watsopano wa osowa lapansi fulorosenti zakuthupi, poyerekeza ndi chiyambi ntchito kashiamu tungstate intensifying chophimba kuwombera 5 ~ 8 zina apamwamba dzuwa, ndipo akhoza kufupikitsa kukhudzana nthawi, kuchepetsa thupi la munthu ndi poizoniyu mlingo, kuwombera ali Zakhala zomveka bwino kwambiri, kugwiritsa ntchito zowonetsera zopezeka zapadziko lapansi kungapangitse zovuta zambiri zozindikiritsa za kusintha kwa ma pathological molondola kwambiri.

Kugwiritsa ntchito maginito osowa padziko lapansi omwe amapangidwa ndi maginito a maginito (MRI) ndiukadaulo watsopano womwe udagwiritsidwa ntchito m'zaka za m'ma 1980, zomwe zimagwiritsa ntchito mphamvu yayikulu yokhazikika ya maginito kutumiza kugunda kwa thupi la munthu, kupangitsa thupi la munthu kupanga atomu ya hydrogen. ndi kuyamwa mphamvu, ndiye mwadzidzidzi anatseka maginito. Kutulutsidwa kwa maatomu a haidrojeni kudzatenga mphamvu. Monga kugawa kwa haidrojeni mu thupi la munthu bungwe lililonse ndi losiyana, kumasula mphamvu za kutalika kosiyana kwa nthawi, kupyolera mu makompyuta apakompyuta kuti alandire mauthenga osiyanasiyana kuti asanthule ndi kukonza, akhoza kubwezeretsedwanso ndikulekanitsidwa ndi ziwalo zamkati za thupi la fano, kusiyanitsa yachibadwa kapena matenda ziwalo, kuzindikira chikhalidwe cha matenda. Poyerekeza ndi X-ray tomography, MRI ili ndi ubwino wa chitetezo, palibe ululu, palibe kuwonongeka ndi kusiyana kwakukulu. Kutuluka kwa MRI kumawonedwa ngati kusintha kwaukadaulo m'mbiri yamankhwala ozindikira.

Zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri pazachipatala ndi maginito opangira maginito okhala ndi maginito osowa padziko lapansi. Chifukwa champhamvu maginito katundu osowa lapansi okhazikika maginito zipangizo, ndipo akhoza kupangidwa akalumikidzidwa zosiyanasiyana za zipangizo maginito mankhwala, ndipo si kophweka demagnetization, angagwiritsidwe ntchito pa thupi meridians acupoints kapena madera pathological, kuposa chikhalidwe maginito mankhwala. zotsatira. Zida za maginito zosatha padziko lapansi zimapangidwa ndi zinthu zamagetsi zamagetsi monga mkanda wa maginito, singano ya maginito, khutu lachitetezo cha maginito, chibangili cholimbitsa thupi, kapu yamadzi yamaginito, ndodo ya maginito, chisa cha maginito, chitetezo cha maginito, chitetezo cha maginito, lamba wamaginito, maginito. massager, etc., amene ntchito sedation, kuchepetsa ululu, odana ndi yotupa, depressurization, anti kutsekula m'mimba ndi zina zotero.

Zida

Auto Instrument Motor mwatsatanetsatane maginito: Iwo zambiri ntchito SmCo maginito ndi NdFeb maginito. Diameter pakati pa 1.6-1.8, kutalika pakati pa 0.6-1.0. Radial Magnetizing ndi Nickel plating.

Magnetic flip level mita malinga ndi buoyancy mfundo ndi maginito coupling mfundo ntchito. Mulingo wamadzimadzi mu chidebe choyezera ukakwera ndikutsika, choyandama mu chubu chotsogola cha mita yamlingo wa maginito chimakwera ndikutsika. Maginito okhazikika mu zoyandama amasamutsidwa ku chizindikiritso chakumunda kudzera pakulumikizana kwa maginito, ndikuyendetsa mzere wofiyira ndi woyera kuti udutse 180 °. Mulingo wamadzimadzi ukakwera, piritsi limasanduka loyera kukhala lofiira, ndipo mulingo wamadzimadziwo ukatsika, piritsi limasanduka lofiira kukhala loyera. Malire ofiira ndi oyera a chizindikiro ndi kutalika kwenikweni kwa mlingo wamadzimadzi mumtsuko, kuti asonyeze mlingo wamadzimadzi.

Chifukwa maginito lumikiza wodzipatula chotsekedwa dongosolo. Makamaka oyenera kuyaka, kuphulika ndi kuwononga mlingo wa poizoni wamadzimadzi. Kotero kuti chilengedwe chovuta kwambiri kudziwa mlingo wamadzimadzi kumatanthauza kukhala kosavuta, kodalirika komanso kotetezeka.

SONY DSC